Complete List of Mountain Passes in India and Himalayas
The Himalaya Mountain is the largest mountain Range in the world and it is situated in the northern part of India. Not only it hosts most of the highest peaks of the world but also some of the coldest places of the Earth. The Himalaya Mountain act as a shield and separates India from rest of the Asia. The Himalayan Mountain Range runs for nearly 2400Km and it hosts some of the highest passes in the world. A Mountain Pass is route or path between mountain ridges which enables movement from one side of range to another. Mountain passes are very important geographical structure as they allow faster and easier transportation from one part of mountain to another. India is surrounded by two hostile neighbors in north i.e. Pakistan and China and these Mountain passes in India give an edge to Indian Army to move necessary reinforcement at time. Not only the passes in India are helpful for Army, the passes in Himalayas are important for people living in Himalayan Valley. These Mountainous passes in allows local people to easily travel from one place to another and arrange necessary goods. In this article, we would be covering Passes in India and specifically Passes in Himalaya Mountain Range of India. We would cover some of the important Mountain passes in India and their importance for Indian Army, some of the highest mountainous passes in the world and important valleys connected by these mountain passes in India.
List of Mountain Passes Situated in Himalaya Range in India
As mentioned earlier, Himalaya Range runs from Jammu & Kashmir to Arunanchal Pradesh, thereby creating substantial number of passes in India. The height of Mountainous passes in India varies from 2500 Meters (8000 feet) to 5500 meters (18000 feet). Almost every state of India through which Himalayan Range passes has substantial number of passes. To better cover this article, we would list all the passes situated in India state wise with records held by them (if any). The Himalayan Range has nearly 40 Mountainous passes in India and they are predominately situated in 5-6 states of India.
Mountain Passes Situated in Siachen Glacier in India
- Gyong La: Gyong La pass is situated in Siachen Glacier on the border between India and Pakistan. Gyong Pass is situated at an elevation of 5686 meters (18655 feet) and currently controlled by India. After partition of India the Gyong La Pass was controlled by Pakistan but after success of Operation Meghdoot in 1984, Indian Army launched another attack in 1989 and reclaimed the Gyong La pass from Pakistan. Since then the pass is administered by India.
- Sia La: Sia La pass is another pass situated in Siachen Glacier. Sia La pass is situated at an altitude of 5,589 meters (18,337 feet) and provides a gateway to Siachen Glacier. Sia La Pass was captured by Indian Army from Pakistan in 1984 under Operation Meghdoot.
- Bilafond La: Bilafond La pass is situated in Siachen Glacier at an elevation of 5,450 meters (17,881 feet) and it was also captured by Indian Army from Pakistan in 1984. India currently maintains a fortified military base at Bilafond La as it lies on the strategic Silk Road. The word Bilafond La “Pass of the Butterflies” and this pass lies on Actual Ground Position Line that divides current positions of Indian and Pakistani troops in the Siachen Glacier region. The Actual Ground Position Line is nearly 110 Km long that runs form Indira Col to NJ9842.
- Karakoram Pass: Karakoram pass is situated at an altitude of 5,540 meters (18,176 feet) and acts as a passage between India and China. In past Karakoram Pass played a significant role in the flourishing trade on the Silk Route between India-China and Central Asia but in the year 1949 the pass was shut down. Karakoram Pass was one of the highest trade route in the world and the border between India and China is indicated by two heaps of stones at a distance of 50 feet, one at Indian side and other at Chinese side.
Mountain Passes Situated in State of Jammu & Kashmir in India
- Banihal Pass : Banihal Pass is situated in the Pir Panjal Range of Himalayas and this pass connects the Kashmir Valley to the Jammu. Banihal Pass is situated at an altitude of 2832 meters (9290 feet) and gets close in winter season. Jawahar tunnel and newly constructed Chenani-Nashri Tunnel provides connectivity in winter months between Jammu and Kashmir Valley.
- Marsimik La: Marsimik Pass is situated in Ladakh Region of Jammu and Kashmir at an altitude of 5,582 meters (18,314 feet). The pass is very close to India-China border and City of Leh and Pangong Lake lies at an distance of 100KM and 40Km respectively. Marsimik La Pass also has a small temple dedicated to Lord Shiva called “Chak Mandir” but the entire stretch of road is not in decent shape and requires great skill to drive.
- Sasser Pass: Sasser Pass is situated at an elevation of 5,411 meters or 17,753 feet in the Ladakh region. The Sasser Pass connects the Nubra Valley to the Shyok Valley. Sasser Pass lies 37Km South of Siachen Glacier.
- Chang La: Chang La Pass is at an elevation of 5,360 meters or 17,590 feet in Ladakh Region of Jammu & Kashmir. Chang La Pass lies on karu-Pangong Road while traversing from Leh to Pangong Lake. The word Chang La means “Pass towards South” and it is situated at 80Km from Leh. Temperature at Chang La falls as low as -40°C and therefore Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has established a research station here which is world’s highest research station.
- Taglang La: Taglang La pass lies on the Manali-Leh Highway and it is situated at an altitude of 5,328 meters (17,480 feet). The pass is situated in between Sarchu and Upshi and Leh city is 108Km from Taglang La pass. Hemis National park is very close to Taglang La Pass.
- Khardung La: Khardung la pass is an important pass for India and it lies at an elevation of 5,359 meters or 17,582 feet. It is through the khardung La Pass that Indian Army forwards supplies to Siachen Glacier. Khardung La Pass is falsely claimed as the “Highest Motorable Pass in World” but there are other motorable pass both in India and world which are higher than Khardung La Pass. Khardung La pass is 40Km from Leh and 75Km from Diskit.
- Kongka Pass: Kongka Pass is at an elevation of 5,171 meters or 16,965 feet and lies at disputed border of India and China (Line of Actual Control). China consider Kongka Pass as its boundary with India while India considers Lanak Pass (pass situated in Tibet Region) as the international boundary. Kongka Pass and Lanak Pass were important reasons which triggered the India-China War of 1962. Today Kongka La pass is one of the least accessible pass in the world not due to the altitude but because of the agreement between India and China.
- Lungalacha La: Lungalacha La Pass is at an altitude of 5,059 meters or 16,600 feet on Manali-Leh Highway. Lungalacha La pass is nearly 90Km from Taglang La pass towards Manali and it is last pass in Jammu & Kashmir before entering to Himanchal Pradesh.
- Fotu La: Fotu La Pass is at an elevation of 4,108 meters (13,478 feet) and lies on Srinagar-Leh highway. It is the highest pass that lies on Srinagar-Leh Highway and Leh City is 120Km from Fotu La Pass. Famous Lamayuru Monastery is only 15Km from Fotu La while Namika La Pass is approximately 35Km from Fotu La.
- Zoji La: Zoji La Pass is first Pass enroute to Leh from Srinagar and it is at an elevation of 3,528 meters or 11,575 feet. City of Sonamarg is 25Km from Zoji La pass and it is closer to the Machoi Glacier which is source of Sind River and Dras River. The Coldest place in India i.e. Dras is only 40Km from Zoji La pass.
- Namika La: Namika La Pass is second pass on Srinagar-Leh Highway enroute to Leh and it lies in between Zoji La Pass and Fotu La Pass. It is at an elevation of 3,700 meters or 12,139 feet.
- Pensi La: Pensi La Pass is at an elevation of 4,400 meters or 14,436 feet and it is also known as the Gateway to Zanskar Valley. Pensi La pass connects Suru Valley to the Zanskar Valley in Jammu & Kashmir. Drang-Drung Glacier which is one of the largest glacier in Ladakh region lies closer to Pensi La pass. Rangdum Monastery is only 25 Km from Pensi La pass.
- Rezang La: Rezang La Pass is situated at an elevation of 4877 meters or 16000 feet on the south-eastern part of Ladakh Province of India. Rezang La pass is closer to the Chushul Valley of Ladakh and there is a war memorial dedicated to the heroes of 1962 India-China war.
- Shingo La or Shinkun La: Shingo La Pass lies at the border of Jammu & Kashmir and Himanchal Pradesh and it is at an elevation of 5,091 meters or 16,703 feet. Shingo La pass connects the Lahul Valley of Himanchal Pradesh to Zanskar Valley of Jammu & Kashmir. Border Road Organization has constructed a 40Km long road connecting Lahul Valley to Zanskar Valley which passes through the Shingo La Pass and it has significantly reduced the travel time between these two valleys.
Mountain Passes Situated in State of Himanchal Pradesh in India
- Kunzum Pass: Kunzum Pass or Kunzum La is situated at an altitude of 4,590 meters or 15,060 feet in Himanchal Pradesh. Kunzum Pass connects the Kullu Valley and Lahaul Valley of Himanchal Pradesh to the Spiti Valley of same state. Rohtang Pass is nearly 75Km from Kunzum Pass and high altitude Chandra Taal lake is only 18 Km from Kunzum Pass. Nearest town to Kunzum Pass is Batal but the pass remains close from November to May every year.
- Bara-lacha la: Bara-lacha la pass is at an elevation of 4,890 meters or 16,040 feet and it connects Lahaul Valley of Himanchal Pradesh to the Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir. Bara-Lacha Pass is second pass on Manali-Leh Highway enroute to Leh. Suraj Tal or Suraj Lake which is third highest lake in India is situated only 4Km from Bara-lacha Pass. Bara-Lacha Pass acts as an intersection pass of Lahaul Valley, Ladakh Valley and Pattan Valley.
- Chanshal Pass: Chanshal Pass is at an elevation of 3,750 meters or 12,303 feet and it lies on the border of Himanchal Pradesh and Uttrakhand. The Chanshal Pass lies in the Sangla Valley of Himanchal Pradesh a 92Km road connects Rohru to Kwar Region. This area is famous for its Apple garden and contributes almost half of the apple produced in entire Himanchal Pradesh.
- Debsa Pass: Debsa Pass is situated at an elevation of 5,360-metres or 17,590 feet and it connects the Kullu Valley of Himanchal Pradesh to Spiti valley. Debsa Pass is second pass that connects the Kullu District to the Lahaul and Spiti District of Himanchal Pradesh. Debsa Pass is very close to Pin Parvati Pass.
- Pin Parvati Pass: Pin Parvati Pass is situated at an altitude of 5,319 meters or 17450 feet. Pin Parvati Pass connects the Pin valley to the Parvati Valley. Pin Parvati Pass lies on a track route from Kheerganga towards Spiti Valley and the track route is one of the toughest trek.
- Indrahar Pass: Indrahar Pass is situated in the Dhauladhar range of the Himalayas at an altitude of 4,342 meters or 14,245 feet. Indrahar Pass acts as a boundary between Kangra and Chamba districts of Himanchal Pradesh. Dharamshala and Mcleodganj are important town near to Indrahar Pass. Indrahar Pass lies enroute to Triund Trek.
- Rupin Pass: Rupin Pass is situated in Dhauladhar Range of Himalayas in Himanchal Pradesh at an elevation of 4,650 meters or 15,250 feet. Rupin Pass is also situated in Sangla Valley and Chanshal Pass is nearly 54 Km from Rupin Pass. In Himanchal Pradesh Rupin Pass is accessible from Shimla via Rohru and in Uttrakhand it is accessible from Dehradun via Netwar Dhaula route. If you are accessing Rupin Pass via Dehradun then Govind Pashu Vihar Sanctuary lies enroute.
- Shipki La: Shipki La Pass lies on border of India and Tibet at an altitude of 5,669 meters or 18,599 feet. Shipki La pass is in Kinnaur district of Himanchal Pradesh and it serves as Border Post for trade between India and Tibet. River Sutlej enters India through the route of Shipki La pass. Currently the pass is managed by ITBP (Indo Tibetan Border Police) and even India Nationals are not allowed to visit this pass due to its location in high sensitivity zone. Shipki La pass is used by local people of Spiti Valley to do trade with Tibet and it is second pass in India used for trade after Nathu La Pass.
- Hamta Pass: Hamta Pass is situated in Pir panjal Range of Himalayas at an elevation of 4270 meters or 14009 feet in Himanchal Pradesh. Hamta Pass connects the Kullu Valley of Himanchal Pradesh to Lahaul Valley and generally used by local people of the region. Locals claim that the Hamta Pass trek was the route taken by Yudhishthira (Character of Mahabharata) to accent to heaven. Tosh Village a famous tourist place is situated very close to Hamta pass.
- Borasu Pass: Borasu Pass is at an elevation of 5,450 meters or 17,880 feet and it connects the Har Ki Doon valley of Uttrakhand to Kinnaur valley of Himanchal Pradesh. Borasu Pass lies at the Border of Himanchal Pradesh and Uttrakhand and Tibet is few kilometers from Borasu Pass.
- Sach Pass: Sach Pass lies in Pir Panjal Range of Himalayas at an elevation of 4,420 metres or 14,500 feet. Sach Pass is in Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh and connects Chamba Valley to the Pangi Valleys. Sach Pass is very important for Indian Army as it reduces the distance by a huge margin to different areas of Jammu & Kashmir. Sach Pass is so crucial for Army that when the construction of road on Sach Pass was going on terrorists killed 35 labors involved in the construction of road.
- Rohtang Pass: Rohtang Pass is very famous pass lies in the Himanchal Pradesh of India at an altitude of 3,978 meters or 13,051 feet. Rohtang Pass connects the Kullu Valley to the Lahaul Valley and Spiti Valley of Himanchal Pradesh as well as act as gateway for Jammu & Kashmir Region of India. Rohtan Pass is nearly 50Km from City of Manali and famous Leh-Manali Highway passes through it (National Highway 21). Rohtang Pass is one of the most visited Mountain Pass in India and therefore number of travelers are restricted to maintained the pollution level in this area. Rohtang Pass is accessible between May to November and is closed for entire winter season in India.
Mountain Passes Situated in State of Uttrakhand in India
- Mana Pass: Mana Pass is lies in Chamoli District of Uttrakhand at an elevation of 5,545 meters or feet 18,192 feet. Mana Pass is only 50Km from the Hindu Pilgrimage temple of Badrinath. Although people claim Khardung La as the Highest Motorable road in the World but in reality, its Mana Pass. Mana Pass lies on Border between India and Tibet and in ancient time it used to serve as a trade route between India and rest of Asian Continent. Importanat places lying in the vicinity of Mana Pass are Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Chaukhamba Peak.
- Auden’s Col: Auden’s Col Pass lies at an elevation of 5,490 meters or 18,010 feet and connects Rudugaira valley and Bhilangana Valley. It is situated in Uttarkashi District of Uttrakhand and lies in between the famous tourist spot of Kedarnath Temple and Gangotri Temple. Auden’s Col is named after John Bicknell Auden, a geologist working with Geological Survey of India. He discovered the pass in year 1935 and went on crossing in the year 1939.
- Lipulekh Pass: Lipulekh Pass is a tri-point pass between India, China and Nepal at an altitude of 5,334 meters or 17,500 feet. Lipulekh Pass connects Chaudans Valley of Uttrakhand with Tibet Autonomous Region of China. The route to Kailash Mansarovar is accessible via Lipulekh Pass and the pass also serves as point of Border Personnel Meeting between India and China. Lipulekh Pass also serves as Border Trading Post between India and China and local people from both the country use this pass to sell their products across the border.
- Sin La: Sin La Pass is situated in Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand at an elevation of 5,495 meters or 18,028 feet. Sin La connects the Darma Valley to Kuthi Yankti valley. The trekking route to Sin La pass passes through India-Nepal Border and the Adi Kailash Peak is visible from Sin La Pass.
- Nama Pass: Nama Pass is situated at an elevation of 5,200 meters or 17,100 feet in Kumaun region of the Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand.