List of Freedom Fighters of India who Died for Independence
Indian Independence Movement was carried out by many groups, organizations, dynasties and individual people. They carried out the movement depending on their ideology. Some followed the path of non-violence and others believed that Britishers can only be chased out of India by the means of violence. Those who followed the path of violence (precisely aggression) were known as Extremists and others were known as moderates. Indians know a lot about Shaheed Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sukhdev, and Rajguru but there are many freedom fighters of India who sacrificed their lives for their motherland and their glory remained unsung.
According to historians, as many as 200 or more freedom fighters of India were executed by the British government in their early years of life. Here we are presenting the list of freedom fighters of India who were killed by the British administration. below the list of freedom fighters of India also mentions their age at the time they died for their motherland.
List of Freedom Fighters of India
List of Freedom Fighters of India died Below The Age of 20 years
1: Khudiram Bose (18 years, 8 months 8 days): He was one of the youngest revolutionaries of India and at the time he died he was just 18 years old. He was born in Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal. At the age of 16, he planted bombs near police stations targeting government officials. He was also charged with The Muzaffarpur killing in which he targeted Kingsford. Later he was caught and after trial, he was hanged on 11th of August 1908. The English newspaper, The Statesman, wrote about him:
“The Railway station was crowded to see the boy. A mere boy of 18 or 19 years old, who looked quite determined. He came out of a first-class compartment and walked all the way to the phaeton, kept for him outside, like a cheerful boy who knows no anxiety…..on taking his seat the boy lustily cried ‘Vandemataram’.”
2: Badal Gupta (18 Years) – Badal Gupta was born in Munshiganj District, now in Bangladesh. He joined Bengal Volunteers and he became famous for Writers’ Building Attack of 1930. He along with his friend Benoy Basu and Dinesh Gupta entered the building. They shot Police Colonel N.S. Simpson, who was famous for torturing prisoners in the jail. After killing Colonel, a gun battle followed and they were outnumbered. Unwilling to get arrested Badal took potassium cyanide and died instantly. Dalhousie Square was renamed as B.B.D. Bagh in honor of Benoy Basu, Badal Gupta, and Dinesh Gupta.
3: Kartar Singh Sarabha (19 Years) – He was born in Ludhiana, Punjab into a Sikh family and he was famous for carrying out the Ghadar Mutiny. The Ghadar Mutiny aimed to overthrow the British with support from foreign countries. Kirpal Singh an informer of the British in Ghadar party passed the information which failed the mutiny. Kartar Singh was asked to run away but he refused. After the trial, he along with the rest of the revolutionaries was sentenced to death. He was hanged in the Central Jail of Lahore on 16th November 1915. Bhagat Singh regarded Kartar Singh as his guru, friend, and brother.
4: Dinesh Gupta (19 Years) – Dinesh Gupta was born Munshiganj District, now in Bangladesh and during his college life he joined Bengal Volunteers, organized by Subhas Chandra Bose. He was the friend of Badal Gupta and Benoy Basu. During the attack of Writers’ Building when they were outnumbered, Dinesh shot himself with his own revolver. However, he survived the injury and later on he was sentenced to death. He was hanged on 7th July 1931.
5: Hemu Kalani (19 Years) – He was a Sindhi and born in Sukkur, now in Pakistan. He joined Gandhi’s Quit India Movement and was involved in raids and the burning of vehicles belonging to the British Government. Hemu and his friends tried to derail the train by removing the fishplate. He and his friends lacked the necessary tools so they used a rope to lose the fixing. He was caught and tortured but he didn’t reveal the names of his friends. He was put on trial and he was hanged on 21 January 1943. A statue of Hemu Kalani is located in the Parliament complex in India.
6: Prafulla Chaki (20 Years) – Prafulla Chaki was a Bengali revolutionary and he was associated with Jugantar (revolutionary party). He along with Khudiram Bose carried out The Muzaffarpur Killing and later both took a separate route to escape. He got identified at Mokama Ghat railway station and when he was about to get arrested, he took his own life by firing two shots one at the forehead and the other on the left side of his chest.
7: Basanta Kumar Biswas (20 Years) – Basanta Kumar Biswas was also a member of Jugantar and he carried out the Bombing at the Viceroy’s Parade on 23rd December 1912, disguised as a woman. Viceroy suffered major injuries and his Mahout was killed. He escaped from the site and later he was caught in Nadia. After the trial, he was sentenced to life imprisonment but British authority wanted the death penalty. Another trial was started at Ambala and records were tampered and he was sentenced to death. He was hanged on 11th May 1915 at Ambala Central Jail in Punjab.
8: Kanailal Dutta (20 Years) – Kanailal Dutta was a Bengali revolutionary and he joined Jugantar and its agitation movement against the Partition of Bengal. He was arrested in connection with Kingsford Assassination and send to Jail. In Alipore Jail Kanailal along with another detainee killed Naren Goswami (who had helped the British Government in the prosecution of 34 revolutionaries). After the trial, he was hanged on 10th November 1908.
List of Freedom Fighters of India died Between The Age of 21-30 Years
1: Pritilata Waddedar (21 Years) – Pritilata Waddedar was one of the female freedom fighters of India who carried out revolutionary activity in Chittagong, now in Bangladesh. In her childhood, she was amazed by the historic stories of Rani Lakshmi Bai. Pritilata was known for carrying out Pahartali European Club attack of 1932. The club had a signboard that read “Dogs and Indians not allowed”. During the cross firing after the attack she got wounded and in order to avoid arrest, she swallowed cyanide and committed suicide.
2: Benoy Basu (22 Years) – Binoy Basu was the third conspirator of Writers’ Building Attack. He along with Dinesh Gupta and Badal Gupta entered the Writers’ Building and shot dead Simpson. When he was surrounded by police and had no option to escape he shot himself. He was taken to the hospital where he died on 13 December 1930. Apart from Writers’ Building attack, he was also involved in killing Inspector General of Police Lowman. After the independence of India, the Dalhousie square was named B.B.D. Bagh in memory of Benoy-Badal-Dinesh trio.
3: Shivaram Rajguru (22 Years) – He was one of the three accused who was hanged along with Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev for the killing of British police officer J. P. Saunders. He was commonly known as Rajguru and belonged to the Maharashtra State of India. They executed Saunders to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai who died in a lathi-charge by police when he was protesting against the Simon Commission. He was caught when police were able to discover the Lahore bomb factory of H.S.R.A (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association). He was put on trial in the Lahore conspiracy case and ordered to be hanged on 24th March 1931. The schedule was forwarded by 11 hours and they were hanged on 23rd March 1931. Afterward jail authorities secretly cremated them and threw the ashes into the Sutlej River.
4: Bhagat Singh (23 Years) – Everyone in India knows about Bhagat Singh, he was one of the most influential freedom fighters of India who participated in the Indian Independence Movement. He carried out many revolutionary activities throughout his life like killing of John Saunders and throwing bomb and leaflets inside the Central Legislative Assembly. Born in Punjab, he was 12 years old when Jallianwala Bagh Massacre happened and at the age of 14 years, he actively participated in Non-Cooperation movement started by Gandhi. His dreams were shattered when Gandhiji called off the movement after the Chauri Chaura incident and he parted his way from Gandhian Policy of Non-Violence. To avoid arrange marriage he ran away from home and wrote:
“My life has been dedicated to the noblest cause, that of the freedom of the country. Therefore, there is no rest or worldly desire that can lure me now.”
After throwing the bomb in Central Assembly he didn’t run away instead he stayed and threw leaflets shouting “Inquilab Zindabad”. He was arrested and moved to Delhi jail. In Lahore Jail he carried out the hunger strike for “inhumane treatment“ of Indian prisoners. His hunger strike lasted for 116 days (one of the longest in history). After the trial, he was sentenced to death and was hanged on 23rd March 1931.
5: Chandra Shekhar Azad (24 Years) – Chandra Shekhar Azad was another prominent freedom fighter of India and he carried out the revolutionary activities when many extremist leaders were caught in Kakori Train Robbery Case. When he was 15 years old when he was arrested for carrying out the Non-Cooperation movement. He carried out the Kakori Train robbery and at that time he was 18 years old! He reorganized the Hindustan Republican Association (founded by Ram Prasad Bismil) to Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (H.S.R.A). He attempted to blow up the Viceroy’s train in 1926, and with Bhagat Singh carried out the shooting of J.P. Saunders. On 27th February 1931 at Alfred Park in Allahabad, he was surrounded by British police and after a long shootout when no way to escape, he shot himself with his last bullet and completed his pledged of never to be captured alive. After Independence of India, Alfred Park was renamed, Chandrasekhar Azad Park.
6: Jatindra Nath Das (24 Years) – He was born in Calcutta and when he was in B.A he was arrested for revolutionary activities. Later, he was contacted by other revolutionaries and he agreed to prepare the bomb. He was arrested when police discovered the Saharanpur bomb factory of H.S.R.A and were put in Lahore Jail with Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutta. He started hunger strike along with Bhagat Singh and other revolutionaries and died on the 63rd day of his hunger strike.
7: Sukhdev Thapar (24 Years) – Sukhdev was the third revolutionary who was hanged with Bhagat Singh and Rajguru on 23rd March 1931. He was born in Ludhiana, Punjab and became a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association in his early age. He also taught at National College and prepared youths for the struggle for independence. He is best known for killing John Saunders with Bhagat Singh. He was cremated at Hussainiwala along with Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev. Now at Hussainwala, there is a famous National Martyrs Memorial and every year on 23rd March “Shaheedi Mela” is observed.
8: Bhagwati Charan Vohra (25 Years) – He was born in Lahore and he joined H.S.R.A when he met other freedom fighters of India at National College in Lahore. He was a great orator and a campaigner and he prepared the HSRA manifesto that was used to educate people about HSRA and its activity. He rented out a small room in Lahore and used it as his bomb preparation laboratory. The bomb prepared by him was used to blast the train of Viceroy Lord Irwin. He died in Lahore on 28th May 1930 while testing a bomb. It is said that bomb was necessary for the rescue of Bhagat Singh and other revolutionaries. His last words were:
“Had this death been late by two days I would have attained more success before dying. Now that desire of mine remained unfulfilled.”
9: Madan Lal Dhingra (25 Years) – Madan Lal was one of the first Indian revolutionaries of the 20th century. He was studying in England when he carried out the Assassination of William Hutt Curzon Wyllie. While studying in England he joined Abhinav Bharat Mandal and became an active member of India House an organization started by Indian in England. On 1st July 1909, during the gathering of the Indian National Association, Dhingra fired five shots at Curzon Wyllie and then he didn’t try to escape and surrendered. After a trial of 25 days, he was sentenced to death and subsequently hanged on 17th August 1909.
10: Pratap Singh Baharat (25 Years) – Pratap Singh Baharat was an Indian revolutionary who hailed from Udaipur district of the Indian State of Rajasthan. He was born in the family of freedom fighters and with his uncle, he carried out bombing at viceroy procession (Lord Hardinge) on 3rd December 1912. Later he was caught and trailed under Banaras Conspiracy Case. He was sentenced to 5 years rigorous imprisonment. Inside the jail, he was tortured to reveal the name of his fellow revolutionaries and he refused. He died in Bareilly Central Jail on 7th May 1918.
11: Bhai Balmukund (26 Years) – Bhai Balmukund was born in Jhelum district, now in Pakistan. He was one of the founding members of the Ghadar Party. He was involved in throwing a bomb at Viceroy Procession in Delhi and killing Europeans by a bomb at Lawrence Garden in Lahore. He was arrested in Jodhpur and after a trial in court, he was sentenced to death. He was hanged in Ambala Central Jail on 11th May 1915.
12: Rajendra Lahiri (26 Years) – Rajendra was born in Pabna District, now in Bangladesh and while studying in college he joined H.R.A to overthrow British from India by aggressive means. He participated in Dakshineswar Bombing and afterward escaped from the site. He remained underground in Benaras as a student and after joining H.R.A executed famous Kakori Train Conspiracy. After a long trial he was found guilty in both the cases and he was hanged in Gonda district Jail on 17th December 1927.
13: Ashfaqulla Khan (27 Years) – Ashfaq Ullah Khan was born in Shahjahanpur district in Uttar Pradesh. He was the best friend of Ram Prasad Bismil. Both Ashfaq and Bismil never let the wall of religion to come in between their friendship or nation. They carried out revolutionary activities together and even sacrificed their lives on the same day, 19th December 1927, but in different jails of Faizabad and Gorakhpur. He planned and then carried out Kakori Conspiracy with rest of his friend and escaped. He remained untraced by police even when Viceroy deployed Scotland Yard (One of the best police force in the world). He was betrayed by one of his Pathan friends and was arrested in Delhi. Later on, under the trail of Kakori conspiracy, he was sentenced to death.
14: Vishnu Ganesh Pingle (27 Years) – Vishnu Ganesh was born in Pune district of Maharashtra and during his early days he joined the Gadar Party. He was a bright student who was very interested in studying engineering. After completing his study in India he went to U.S.A to study mechanical engineering and there he Joined Gadar Party. He was one of the key members to carry out sepoy mutiny against the British during World War-1. He planned to assassinate Lord Hardinge in Delhi and carried ten bombs with him which were enough to blow up an entire regiment. He along with Kartar Singh was hanged on 16th November 1915 at the Lahore Central Jail.
15: Baikuntha Shukla (27 Years) – Baikunath Shukla was born in Muzaffarpur District of Bihar and he was associated with H.S.R.A. He actively participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement started by Gandhi and was arrested. After release from jail, he joined the revolutionary group. He carried out the execution of Phanindra Nath Ghosh who became British Government witness which ultimately led to the hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru. He was arrested and hanged Gaya Central Jail on 14th May 1934.
16: Mangal Pandey (29 Years) – Mangal Pandey was born in Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh and when he revolted against British, he was working as a sepoy for British Army. He is regarded as one of the few persons who initiated the great rebellion of 1857. He promised that he will kill the first Englishmen that he set eyes on and assassinated Lieutenant Baugh. After he was caught, he was hanged on 8th April 1857, 10 days before the scheduled date. Mangal Pandey is regarded as one of the first freedom fighters of India.
17: Ram Prasad Bismil (30 Years) – Ram Prasad Bismil was born in Shahjahanpur district of Uttar Pradesh. He was the founding member of H.R.A. He was associated with Hindu organization “Arya Samaj” and Ashfaq Ullah Khan was his best friend. He was famous for executing Mainpuri Conspiracy Case of 1918, and then the Kakori conspiracy of 1925. He was hanged under the Kakori trial on 19th December 1927. Ram Prasad Bismil was great poet-writer of Urdu and Hindi language and he wrote many famous poems. While he was in Mainpuri he wrote Mainpuri Ki Pratigya (Vow of Mainpuri). The famous poem Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna was written by him.
List of Freedom Fighters of India died Between The Ages of 31-40 Years
1: Veer Bhai Kotwal (31 Years) – Veer Bhai Kotwal was born in Raigad District of Maharashtra. He carried out social and revolutionary work together in 1940’s. He created a group known as “Kotwal Dasta” and destroyed electric pylons & railway tracks thereby paralyzing the industries and railways. To counter Veer Bhai’s attack British police announced a cash award of rupees 2500 for the arrest of Bhai Kotwal. On 2nd January 1943 when his Kotwal Dasta was shifting to another base police attacked his group. He was injured and killed in a police encounter. He used to proudly say “live in my free country or in the heaven”.
2: Roshan Singh (35 Years) – Roshan Singh was accused of the Kakori Conspiracy Case. Born in Shahjahanpur district, Uttar Pradesh he was involved in revolutionary activities from his college days. He was arrested during the Non-Cooperation movement for shooting. During his last days, he wrote the famous letter to his brother which stated “The life of a man is the best creature of God and I have proved this by sacrificing it for my country. I am the first man of my village who has glorified all of you”. He was hanged in Naini Jail of Allahabad on 19th December 1927.
3: Bagha Jatin(35 Years) – The real name of Bagha Jatin was Jatindranath Mukherjee, he acquired the name “Bagha” after killing a Royal Bengal Tiger single handily with the help of a knife. While working in Bengal he founded Anushilan Samiti to carry out the anti-British activity. He carried out the Howrah-Sibpur Conspiracy and acted as a mentor for many revolutionaries. He carried out the independence movement when many prominent leaders were caught under Alipore Bombing Case. On 9th September 1915, he was surrounded by British forces and gunfight lasted for many hours. During the gunfight, he was wounded heavily and died next day. He was the great admirer of Swami Vivekananda and inspired by Swami Vivekananda he expressed
“Amra morbo, jagat jagbe” — “We shall die to awaken the nation“.
4: Surya Sen (39 Years) – Surya Sen was a Bengali school teacher and he was famous for carrying out the Chittagong Armoury Raid. They planned to seize the armory and then destroy the communication system of the city so that Chittagong can be isolated from rest of India. When the British arrested all the people involved in Chittagong raid Surya Sen along with few revolutionaries escaped. While he was hiding in one village the locals informed the police about Surya Sen. He was captured and then tortured brutally. British broke all his teeth with a hammer and pulled out all his nails. They broke all his limbs and joints. He died on 12th January 1934.
5: Udham Singh (40 Years) – Udham Singh was born in Sangrur district of Punjab and he is commonly referred to as Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh. His father and mother died at an early age of 8 and he studied in an orphanage. He was inspired by Bhagat Singh and joined the Gadar Party. He helped Indian Revolutionaries by providing Arms and ammunition for which he was later arrested. He is famous for Assassinating Michael O’Dwyer in England who approved Reginald Dyer’s Jallianwala Bagh massacre. He concealed his revolver in a book and entered the hall. When the meeting was over he shot O’Dwyer twice killing him immediately. After assassinating O’Dwyer he didn’t try to escape and was arrested.
Last But Not Least:
Batukeshwar Dutt (54 Years) – Though Batukeshwar Dutt died at the age of 54 in 1965 he played an important role with Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru and other H.S.R.A revolutionaries. He was born in Burdwan district of West Bengal. He came to Kanpur for higher studies and there he met Bhagat Singh and learned about making a bomb. He threw the bomb in Central legislative assembly along with Bhagat Singh and threw pamphlets of H.S.R.A. He also carried out the famous Hunger strike in Lahore Jail with Bhagat Singh. He was sentenced to imprisonment and send to Cellular Jail, Andaman, and Nicobar. When he was released he again participated in Quit India Movement and was jailed for four years. During the jail years, he contracted Tuberculosis and after Independence of India, he spent his remaining life in poverty as a forgotten hero. His last wish was to be cremated at the same place where Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru were cremated. He was cremated at Hussianwala in 1965.
Though we have tried out best to provide you the list of freedom fighters of India who sacrificed their lives for the independence of their motherland. In case we have missed someone you can provide your suggestion and we would expand this list as long as possible. Sacrificing their life was the biggest tribute they gave to India and we can also pay tribute to them by acknowledging their contribution, the hardship, the torture faced by them just to see the freedom of “INDIA”.
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