List of Mountain Ranges & Mountains in India
Mountains are one of the classifications of land and there is a large number of mountains in India. There are many mountain ranges in India and it can be seen throughout the Indian subcontinent. Broadly classifying there are seven Mountain ranges in India and these ranges have some of the greatest mountains peaks in India as well as in the world. In this article, we will cover mountains in India, major mountain ranges in India, classification of mountains in India, the importance of mountains in India, highest mountain peak in India and important places situated in mountains in India.
India is one of the most diverse countries in the world and the credit of this diversity goes to different flora & fauna and various type of physical topography. Northern India has The Great Himalayan Range and it separates Indian mainland from rest of Asia. The Himalayas is one of the longest and oldest mountains in India and it has almost every largest peak of the world. In central India, we have Satpura and Vindhya Range that separates northern and southern India. Going west we have Aravalli Mountain Range which is the oldest mountains in India. Going further south we have Western and Eastern Ghats mountain ranges that separate coastal plains on either side. Eastern and the Western Ghats are made of multiple mountain ranges and are one of the main centers of tourist attraction. Many hill stations like Ooty, Kodaikanal, Jog Falls, and Kudremukh are situated in these ranges.
The Western Ghats are included in world’s “Greatest biodiversity hotspots” they have thousands of different species of plants and animals and are visited by thousands of tourists. These mountain ranges play a great role in India. They are not just for tourist purpose but also play a very crucial role in India’s culture and environment. These great mountain ranges affect India’s climate, they are the source of many important Indian rivers like Ganges, Narmada, and Mahanadi etc. They have a great impact on Indian mythology and many important events are associated with them. To study mountains in India is a very interesting topic and a large number of researchers from all over the world come here just for study purpose.
List of Mountain Ranges in India
- The Great Himalayan Mountain in North
- The Karakoram and Pir Panjal Range
- Eastern Mountain range or The Purvanchal Range
- The Satpura and Vindhya Range
- The Aravali Range
- The Western Ghats
- The Eastern Ghats
Mountains in India
The Great Himalayan Mountain: Himalayan Mountain is new fold mountain formed by the collision of two tectonic plates. This mountain range has almost every highest peak of the world and on an average, they have more than 100 peaks with height more than 7200m. The height of Himalayas is so great that excluding K2 or Godwin Austen remaining 9 of 10 highest peaks lie in this range. The word Himalaya means “abode of the snow” which is derived from Sanskrit word. Himalayan Mountain has a total length of 2400 km and width varies from 400 km to 150 km. Nanga Parbat and Namcha Barwa are considered as the western and eastern point of Himalayas. “Mount Everest” the highest peak of the world (8848m) lies in Himalayan range in Nepal. The Himalayas is also the source of many great rivers the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus all have their origin in the Himalayas. The Indo-Gangetic plain is one of the most densely populated areas of the world lies in the south of this mountain range. Tibetan plateau surrounds the Himalayas from the north. The Himalayas also plays a major role in regulating climate in northern India as it prevents cold air from entering Indian mainland in the winter season.
Karakoram and Pir Panjal Range: Karakoram Range and Pir Panjal range lies to the North-west and south of Himalayas Range. A major part of Karakoram Range comes under the disputed territory of India and Pakistan and both claim over it. Karakoram Range with the length of 500km is a house of many largest peaks of earth and K2 the second highest peak in the world at 8,611 m lies here. An extension of Karakorum Range runs as Hindu-Kush in Afghanistan. The Karakoram has most glaciers excluding Polar Regions and The Siachen Glacier and The Biafo Glacier which are world’s 2nd and 3rd largest glaciers are located in this range. Pir Panjal Range is located in the southern direction of Himalayas starting from Himachal Pradesh in India and running north-west towards Jammu & Kashmir and disputed area of Jammu & Kashmir. This range is also known as Lower Himalayas, rivers like Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum flow through this range. City of Gulmarg which is very important hill station lies here.
Eastern Mountain Range or The Purvanchal Range: The Purvanchal Range can be considered as an extension of Himalayas in the eastern part of India as the process of formation of this range is quite similar to that of Himalayas though Purvanchal Range is not as high as of Himalayas. This range comprises of three parts The Patkai-Bum Hill, The Garo-Khasi-Jaintia Hills and Lushai Hill (Mizo Hills). Mawsynram in Meghalaya is the wettest place on earth because of these hills and it lies in Khasi Hill. This range covers all the eastern states of India which are commonly referred as Seven Sisters.
The Satpura and Vindhya Range: The Satpura and Vindhya range lie in central India and both these range runs parallel to each other. Out of these two Satpura ranges is higher in length and is a source of rivers like Narmada and Tapti. Both these ranges are mainly situated in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra with some extension to Gujrat, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh. Kalumar Peak (752m) and Duphgarh Peak (1350m) are the highest points in Vindhya and Satpura range. These ranges are famous for a large no of tourist spots like Panchmarhi Hill Station, Kanha National Park, Amarkantak and Omkareshwar temple.
The Aravali Range: The Aravali Range is the oldest mountain range in India and it is also one of the oldest mountain range in the world. In the local language, it means “Line of Peaks”. The Aravali Range spans a total length of 800 km covering Indian states of Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujrat. The Aravali Range plays a very important role in Indian climate as it blocks wind carrying rain to reach the Thar Desert. The width of range varies from 10km to 100km. Guru Shikhar is the highest point of Aravali Range with a total elevation of 1722m. This range is famous for many tourist attractions and Mount Abu is a famous hill station in Rajasthan is situated in this range. The city of Udaipur also lies on its southern slope. Rivers that flow through this range are Banas, Luni, and Sabarmati.
The Western Ghats: The Western Ghats is 1600m long mountain range that runs from Gujrat to Kanyakumari in south India. This mountain range is also called “Sahyadri Mountains”. It comprises of the mountain range of Nilgiris, Anaimalai and Cardomom Tapti River mark its beginning in Gujrat and then it runs parallel to Arabian Sea crossing states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Anaimalai Hills with an elevation of 2695m in Kerala is the highest peak of this range. Western Ghats is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site and has great bio-diversity. It is home to some 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species and 250 reptile species. Famous tourist attractions include Jog falls, Ooty, Bandipur National Park. Important rivers in this range are the Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.
The Eastern Ghats: The Eastern Ghats is mountain range running in eastern part of Indian Peninsula parallel to the Bay of Bengal. This range is not continuous and is lower in elevation when compared to the Western Ghats and runs through Indian states of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Arma Konda with an elevation of 1680m is the highest peak of this region. The Eastern Ghats have a significant role in Indian agriculture as four major rivers of India i.e. Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri fall into the Bay of Bengal through the Eastern Ghats. Before falling they create a large fertile region with is suitable for crops like rice. These ghats are older than the Western Ghats and they have some very important pilgrim sites like Tirumala Venkateshwara Temple in Andhra Pradesh. Vishakhapatnam and Bhubaneswar are important cities located in the Eastern Ghats.
Read Also: Geography of India